SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET
SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET – ORIGIN, GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION,
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE, SOIL AND CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT, VARIETIES,
CULTURAL PRACTICES AND YIELD
SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor L.)
Juar (Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi), Jola (Kannada), Jwari (Marathi), Janha (Oriya), Jonnalu (Telugu), Other names: Milo, Chari, Cholam (Malayalam, Tamil).
ORIGINThere are different views about the place of origin of sorghum. Warth (1937) thought that it was originated in India and Africa. De Candolle said that sorghum was started in Africa. It originated from the North East of Africa or Abyssinia and was brought to the USA and European countries by slaves.
SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION
Sorghum has grown in all parts of the world except the cool Northeast part of Europe. Sorghum belts in India receive 400-1000mm rainfall. In the World, Africa (Nigeria, Sudan) is the significant landmass that develops sorghum, and North America, South America, and Asian mainlands likewise develop sorghum.
In India, mainly in central & peninsular India, such as Maharashtra, Karnataka, MP, Andar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Gujarat are important states sorghum crops.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE of SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET
Sorghum is a cereal grain crop mostly grown in Africa, Asia, and Central America, primarily to ease food insecurity. It is the world’s fifth-largest grain crop and Africa’s second most important in terms of tonnage. Sorghum is generally grown in semi-arid or sub-tropical areas, attributable to its resistance to harsh climate situations. Sorghum, a grain, search, or sugar crop, is among the most productive harvests in a change of sun-oriented energy and utilization of water.
Sorghum is known as a high-energy, dry season lenient harvest. On account of its wide uses and transformation, “sorghum is one of the truly key yields” needed for the endurance of humanity. In the United States, South America, and Australia, sorghum grain is utilized basically for domesticated animal feed and in developing ethanol plants. In the domesticated animals market, sorghum is utilized in the poultry, meat, and pork ventures. Stems and foliage are utilized for green slash, feed, silage, and field.
CULTURAL PRACTICES OF SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET
SEASON AND VARIETIES
- Thaipattam (January-February), Chithiraipattam (April-Might), Adipattam (June-July), and Puratasipattam (September-October) are the 4 frequent seasons for sorghum crop in Tamil Nadu.
- The cultivars, CO 26, CO (S) 28, CO (S) 30, BSR 1, COH 4, K tall, K 11, Paiyur 1, Paiyur 2, and APK 1 are the most commonly used in Tamil Nadu.
Collection of seeds:
Good high-quality seeds are collected from illness and pest-free fields.
Seed price: Irrigated: Transplanted – 7.5 kg/ha; Direct sown – 10 kg/ha Rainfed (Direct sown) – 15 kg/ha
Sorghum underneath irrigated circumstances is raised each as a direct sown and transplanted crop.
Advantages of the transplanted SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET crop:
The main field duration is reduced by 10 days.
- Shoot fly, which attacks direct-sown crops during the first 3 weeks and which is difficult to
management, will be managed successfully and economically within the nursery itself.
- Seedlings that show chlorotic and downy mildew symptoms can be eliminated, thereby
incidence of downy mildew in the main field can be minimized.
- An optimum population can be maintained as only healthy seedlings are used for transplanting.
- The seed rate can also be reduced by 2.5 kg/ha.
NURSERY PRACTICES FOR TRANSPLANTED SORGHUM
For elevating seedlings to plant one hectare, choose 7.5 cents (300 m2) close to a water supply where water will not stagnate.
Application of FYM to the nursery
• Apply 750 kg of FYM or compost and apply one other 500 kg of compost or FYM for covering the seeds after sowing.
• Unfold the manure evenly on the un-plowed soil and incorporate by plowing or apply just before the last plowing.
Laying the nursery
• Present three separate models of dimension 2 m x 1.5 m with 30 cm house in between the plots and all around the unit for irrigation.
• Excavate the soil from the inter-space and all-around to a depth of 15 cm to make channels and unfold the soil eliminated on the mattress and stage.
Pre-treatment of seeds
• Deal with the seeds 24 hours earlier than sowing with Carbendazim or Captan or Thiram at 2g/kg.
• Deal with the seeds with three packets (600 g)/ha of Azospirillum and three packets (600g) of phosphobacteria or 6 packets of Azophos (1200g) utilizing rice gruel as a binder.
Sowing and covering the seeds
• Make shallow drills not deeper than 1cm on the bed by passing the fingers vertically over it.
• Broadcast 7.5 kg of handled seeds evenly on the beds.
• Cover by leveling the rills bypassing the hand lightly over the soil.
• Provide one inlet to each nursery unit.
• Permit the water to enter through the inlet and canopy all of the channels until the raised beds are moist, after which reduce off water SORGHUM AND bulrush millet.
• Regulate the frequency of irrigation in line with the soil varieties. If it is red soils, at 4-5 days intervals and black soils, c must maintain 5-6 days intervals. NOTE: Don’t preserve the seedlings within the nursery for greater than 18 days. If older seedlings are used, establishment and yield are adversely affected. Don’t enable cracks to develop within the nursery by properly adjusting the quantity of irrigation water.
B. MAIN FIELD PREPARATION
• Plough the sector with an iron plow as soon as (or) twice. Sorghum doesn’t require fine tilth since fine tilth adversely affects
germination and yield within the case of an immediate sown crop.
• To beat the subsoil hardpan in Alfisols (deep pink soils), chiseling the sector at 0.5m intervals to a depth of 40 cm on each the instructions of the sector followed by disc plowing once and cultivator plowing twice help to increase the yield of sorghum and the succeeding black gram also. This was true with Sorghum, followed by Groundnut also.
SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET
• Application of FYM and 100% of recommended N can also be followed. In soils with subsoil hardpan, chiseling should be done per annum at the beginning of the cropping sequence to make a positive physical environment.
Application of FYM
Spread 12.5 t/ha FYM or composted coir pith alongside 10 packets of Azospirillum(2000g/ha) and 10 packets (2000 g/ha) of phosphobacteria or 20 packets of Azophos (4000g/ha) on the unploughed field and incorporate the manure in the soil. Apply well-decomposed poultry manure @ 5 t/ha to improve the grain yield and the physical properties of soils.
SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET
Formation of ridges and furrows
• Kind ridges and furrows utilizing a ridge at 6 m lengthy and 45 cm aside.
• Form irrigation channels across the furrows.
• Alternatively, kind beds of dimensions 10 m2 and 20 m2 relying on the provision of water.
Application of fertilizers
• Apply NPK fertilizers as per soil. Take a look at suggestions. If soil test recommendations are not
obtainable, undertake blanket advice of 90 N, 45 P2O5, 45 K2O kg/ha.
• Apply N @ 50:25:25% at basal, 15, and 30 DAS and a full dose of P2O5 and K2O basally
before planting.SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET
• Within the case of ridge planted crop, open a furrow 5cm deep on the aspect of the ridge at two-thirds space from the highest of the ridge and place the fertilizer combination alongside the furrow and cover with soil up to 2 cm.SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET
• Soil software of Azospirillum at 10 packets (2 kg/ha) and 10 packets (2000g/ha) of
phosphobacteria or 20 packets of Azophos (4000g/ha) after mixing with 25 kg of FYM + 25
c could also carry out kg of soil earlier than sowing/planting.
Direct sown crop
• As above.
• Within the case of sorghum raised as a blended crop with a pulse crop (Blackgram, Greengram, or Cowpea), open furrows 30 cm apart to a depth of 5 cm.SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET
• Apply fertilizer mixture in two lines in which sorghum is raised and covered up to 2 cm.
• Skip the third row through which the heartbeat crop is raised and place fertilizer combination within the next two rows and cover up to 2 cm with soil.SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET
• When Azospirillum is used, apply only 75% of recommended N for irrigated sorghum.
Application of micronutrient mixture
• Combine 12.5 kg/ha of micronutrient combination formulated by the Division of Agriculture, Tamil Nadu, with sufficient sand to make a complete amount of fifty kg and apply the combination over the furrows and on high one-third of the ridges.
• If a micronutrient mixture isn’t available, mix 25 kg of zinc sulfate with sand to form a complete quantity of fifty kg and apply to the furrows and on the highest one-third of the ridges.SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET
Direct sown crop
• As above.
• Basal application of FeSO4, 50 kg/ha alongside 12.5 t/ha FYM for iron-deficient soils.
SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET BENEFITS
This nutritional powerhouse is a medium-sized grain cultivated and consumed in different parts of the world. Because it has a unique chemical composition, sorghum is easily digestible. But it does have its disadvantages. Rice is much more nutritious than sorghum because it has an alpha-amylase enzyme to help break down its starch into sugars.
That’s why rice is more digestible. Even for a diabetic patient, sorghum would be a preferable grain to rice because it has less sugar. (Editor’s note: If you are interested in learning more about the nutritional benefits of sorghum, I recommend “Sorghum-Rice Nutrient Balance” by Claude Dunn.) Because sorghum doesn’t have the added sugars that rice does, your blood sugar will be less likely to spike during consumption.
Another advantage of sorghum is that it has the lowest glycemic index of all the grains, so it doesn’t cause a spike in blood sugar. That’s another benefit, especially when the typical American diet has many refined white bread and bread products. They can cause blood sugar spikes and then a drop.
GRAINS Many people think wheat flour is the most nutritious grain because it’s high in protein, zinc, iron, magnesium, calcium, and potassium.
That’s a good thing, but wheat flour is a slightly refined wheat flour, and it doesn’t contain as much protein as white bread. SORGHUM AND SUGAR One of the benefits of sorghum and sugar is that sorghum contains fructose and sucrose, the same type of sugars found in the most popular foods in America. But because it’s less refined, it doesn’t raise blood sugar. In fact, it’s quite the opposite.
Because it’s high in protein and iron, it balances blood sugar. Because sorghum is lower in sugar, you can easily reduce your sugar intake by consuming sorghum or even having sorghum as a part of a dish with sugar instead of the traditional sugar. Sometimes sugar can act like a sweetener in a recipe without being used as a sweetener.
Once you’ve cut out all the sugar, sugar substitutes, refined white flour products, and refined grains, then it will be easier to cut back on carbohydrates and add more fruits and vegetables to your diet.
PEARL The richness of sorghum is matched by the sweetness of the pear. And the pear is low in calories. MILLET Many people don’t know that there are different types of wheat and rice proteins, and when you look at the proteins, they have different physical forms.
Sorghum proteins are ideal for certain proteins because they have a similar physical structure to the proteins found in milk or the proteins in eggs.
That’s why millet flour is a good choice to add to millet products, millet cakes, or millet tortillas. CUTTING BACK ON CARBS Wheat contains about 3 grams of fiber per 100 grams of wheat flour. That’s less than one-third of the total fiber contained in sorghum flour, but sorghum flour still has more than one-third of the daily intake needed to promote a healthy diet. It also has about three times the protein.
Most foods and grains contain refined sugar, which is much less than the natural sugar in grains. Sugar contributes a lot of calories to your diet.
If you cut out sugars and refined grains, then you can add more fruits and vegetables. It’s important to get enough protein. It doesn’t just help reduce blood sugar. It also helps you stay lean, as protein-rich diet aids in controlling your appetite. You can have too much protein, and your metabolism could slow down.
Even though most Americans consume enough protein, the protein amounts in most protein-rich foods are too low.
And most of the proteins found in the top 15 foods have a glycemic index (GI) level of 45 or below. That means they don’t spike your blood sugar. They’re also low in calories.
That’s another benefit. PICK AND CHOOSE SORGHUM IN SPOTLIGHT Your health and nutrition are important to me, so I’m going to focus on sorghum today. It has a lot of advantages in addition to its healthy attributes. Here’s why you should pick sorghum:
Lower in sugar and calories than rice Helps protect the brain Protects the heart Helps control blood sugar Contains antioxidants Contains vitamins The following information is from the USDA.
With our lowest sugar content, sorghum flour helps you limit sugar while enhancing the flavor of desserts, millets, sorghum pancakes, sorghum bread, cakes, muffins, and other products. Most grains, especially wheat and rice, have a lot of hidden sugars. Sorghum doesn’t.
If you go to your favorite restaurant and see many high-calorie items loaded with sugar, it makes it easy to cut back on the sugars. It also helps to limit calorie intake. It’s often recommended that sorghum be eaten in moderation because it does have a lot of protein. One cup of cooked millet has about five grams of protein.
That’s a good amount. While we’re talking about the benefits of sorghum, it’s important to note that the average American needs between 60 and 120 grams of protein every day.
That cannot be easy to achieve. But, if you choose sorghum, you can easily achieve 60 to 90 grams of protein a day. When you add more fruits and vegetables, it’s much easier to meet your protein needs.
HAPPY STRAWBERRY SEASON My husband and I planted three dozen strawberry plants and four dozen raspberries last However, if you want to eat good sorghum, try starchy food like millet. Since it has a slightly higher gram count of protein (40 compared to sorghum’s 35), millet is better than sorghum in the protein department.
The protein will help you stay satisfied, especially if you add fruits and vegetables. In fact, you should eat as much millet as you can while eating a healthy and nourishing diet to make sure you are getting enough protein. To eat millet and not over-eat, you should aim for about 2 tablespoons per meal.
I would suggest eating about 1 cup of millet porridge and mixing it into your morning oats. Or you can add it to porridge for breakfast. You could also try preparing a millet noodle soup for lunch.
This is a great option if you want to eat a balanced meal rich in protein, calcium, fiber, and other nutrients. GARLIC MILLET My grandmother always taught me about millet because she had a tradition of baking it.
If you don’t know how to bake sorghum, you could buy a package of millet flour from your local grocery store. You can use wheat flour in this recipe instead of millet flour. To make millet flour, take 5 tablespoons of wheat flour, and mix it with 5 tablespoons of sorghum flour.
However, you could also use all millet flour instead of wheat flour, if you like. To make your dough, add an egg. Then you will have a delicious dough that you can use in your baking.
Just beat an egg with an egg beater, add an extra tablespoon of milk, and then you are ready to start making your bread.