Interesting facts of Chickpea Cultivation in 2021

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chickpea cultivation
chickpea cultivation

Introduction of chickpea cultivation

chickpea cultivation zone or Pulses are a vital supply of steady protein meals for the poor and vegetarians, representing serious inhabitants of the nation. India’s contribution in the direction of whole international acreage and manufacturing of pulses is around 35% & 27%, respectively.

India can be the most important shopper of pulses, accounting for about 30 % of the whole consumption on this planet. The Really accommodating Dietary Allowances (RDA) for adult peoples is 60 g for men and 55 g for women each day separately. The per capita accessibility of legumes is @ 42 g each day.

The worldwide space below pulse manufacturing was 79 Mha space with median manufacturing of 72 Mt having. The world common yield was 910 kg/ha (2013-14).
Pulses being legumes have the flexibility to repair atmospheric nitrogen of their roots in affiliation with the microorganism Rhizobium spp., in symbiotic mode.

Main pulses grown in India are chickpea, pigeon pea, black gram, inexperienced gram, lentil, subject pea, cowpea, french bean, rice bean,  horse gram (kulthi), Lathyrus, and different minor pulses. Indian pulse manufacturing: Share of various pulses: Chickpea 46%, Pigeonpea 16%. Urdbean 10percentMungbean 8 %, Lentil 6 %,

  • Chickpea is grown as a winter crop (tropics) and as a summertime or spring crop (temperate environments).
  • Grown in additional than 50 nations (89.7% in Asia; 4.3% in Africa; 2.6% in Oceania; 2.9% in Americas; and 0.4% in Europe).
  • India is the most important chickpea producer with 65% of world manufacturing.
  • Different main producing nations are: Turkey ,Pakistan, Myanmar, Australia, Iran, Canada, Ethiopia, Mexico, and Iraq.
  • A vital supply of protein (20-22%) in South Asia who’re largely vegetarians. Wealthy in fiber, minerals, B-carotene, and lipid fraction is excessive in unsaturated fatty acids.
  • Improves soil fertility by fixing atmospheric N as much as 140 kg/ha.

Chickpea

  • Botanical Title – Cicer arietinum;
  • Synonym – Chickpea, Bengal gram, Chana, Gram, Garbanzo bean, and Egyptian pea;
  • Chromosome no of chickpea – 2n = 16

Begins – South West Asia – in all probability Afganisthan and Persia. Chickpea is the one domesticated species below the genus Cicer, which was initially categorized within the tribe vicieae of the household Leguminosae and subfamily, Papilionoideae. Chickpeas are one of many oldest pulses recognizing and cultivate from historical occasions each in Asia and Europe. Chickpea cultivation zone is likely one of the earliest cultivating legumes: 7,500-year stays have been discovering within the Center East.

Significance of Chickpea

Chickpea is value for its nutritive seeds with excessive protein content material, 25 – 28%. Chickpea seeds are eating recently as inexperienced greens, parched, fried, roasted, and boiled. It leaves about 30-50 kg N/ha for successive crops, particularly cereals. Intercrop cereals additionally get benefiting via ‘N’ equipped through fixation in gram.

Chickpea consumed as ‘Dal’ (break up cotyledons) use for making ready engaging dishes viz – sweets, snacks, and namkeen are additionally ready from its flour referred to as besan. The straw of gram is a wonderful fodder, whereas each husk and bits of ‘Dal’ are useful cattle feed. Leaves include malic and citric acid and are beneficial for abdomen illnesses and blood purifiers.

Chickpeas are a perfect supply of fiber, so they assist in weight reduction.    Chickpeas assist in stabilizing sugar ranges within the blood. Chickpeas might assist in lowering LDL LDL cholesterol Low-density Lipoprotein). Chickpeas might enhance power ranges as a result of their iron content material. Chickpeas have a low glycemic index (GI) which is nice for diabetic sufferers.

Dietary high quality:-

Chickpeas are nutrient-dense meals, offering wealthy content material (> 20% of the Everyday Worth, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, folate, and sure dietary minerals similar to iron and phosphorus. Thiamin, vitamin B6, magnesium, and zinc. Chickpeas have a Protein of excessive digestibility. Amino Acid Rating of about 76 p.c, which is greater than fruits, greens, many different legumes, and cereals.

 Chickpeas Nutritive Benefits

Protein – 18-22%; Calcium – 280 mg/100 g ; Carbohydrate – 61-62% ; Iron -12.3 mg/100 g; Fats – 4.5 %; Phosphorus – 301 mg/100 g

 Chickpea Amazing Facts /Space & Manufacturing

chickpea cultivation zone or World chickpea manufacturing reached 13.3 million tons in 2013 and 14.2million tons in 2014. Together with India, Australia, Turkey, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Ethiopia, six nations account for about 90% of the world’s chickpea manufacturing.

The overall space and manufacturing of gram throughout twelfth. The plan was 8.88 million hectares and eight.50 mill. Tonnes respectively. Madhya Pradesh ranked first within the space and manufacturing (34.32% and 39.47 % of whole space and manufacturing of the nation), adopting by Rajasthan (16.64 % and 14.99%) and Maharashtra (16.09% and12.95 %). Plant Behavior Chickpea is a herbaceous annual plant that branches from the bottom.

It’s virtually a small bush with subtle, spreading branches. The plant is usually lined with glandular or non-glandular hairs; however, some genotypes don’t possess hair. Primarily based on seed measurement and shade, cultivate chickpeas are of two sorts.
Chickpea crops have a powerful taproot.

Stem with 3 or 4 rows of lateral roots. The roots develop 1.5-2.0 m deep. Chickpea roots bear Rhizobium nodules. They’re of the carotenoid sort, branched with laterally flattened ramifications, generally forming a fanlike lobe.

Chickpea Amazing Facts

The chickpea stem is erect, branched, viscous, furry, terete, herbaceous, inexperienced, and stable. The branches are normally quadrangular, ribbed, and inexperienced. There are major, secondary, and tertiary branches.

Main branches come up from the bottom stage as they develop from the plumular shoot and the lateral branches of the seedling. They’re thick, robust, and woody and should vary from one to eight in quantity. Secondary branches develop at buds situated on the first branches. They’re much less vigorous than the first branches. Their quantity ranges from 2 to 12.
The variety of secondary branches determines the whole variety of leaves, and therefore the whole photosynthetic space.

Tertiary branches come up from the secondary branches. The first branch kind an angle with a vertical axis, starting from virtually a proper angle (prostrate behavior) to an acute angle (erect). Chickpea cultivation zone Typically, stems are incurring on the high, forming a spreading cover.

Flowers are typical Papilionaceous consisting of 5 sepals, 5 petals (consists of 1 customary, two wings, and two keels), ten stamens (9 fuses to kind one staminal column and one free column. Inflorescence -axillary, racemes . Anthesis takes place between 9 am to three pm. Self- fertilization.

Classification of Chickpea

Desi or Brown Gram (Cicer Arientinum It recognizes as microspermaKabuli or White Gram (Cicer Kabulium It recognizes as Macrosperma
The Color of the seed coat ranges from yellow to darkish brown-green or black and angular in form. Thick seed coat.Color of seed coat white with daring seed with ram-head to a rounded form. Skinny seed coat.
Stature smaller and fewer branching, with small leaflets and purplish flowers, and comprise anthocyaninPants are taller than desi chickpea and have extra branching, with giant leaflets, white flowers, and no anthocyanin.
Seed measurement is smallSeed measurement is giant
A broadly cultivate group in India (90% of the whole world).Have much less acreage than desi chana
Poor branchingGood branching capability
The market worth is much lessThe market worth is extra

Local Weather & Temperature

  • Chickpea crop grows properly below good moisture situations with the very best temperatures between 24 C and 30″C.
  • Chickpeas are cultivating below each irrigated and rained situation.
  • Principally, this crop is a winter season crop.
  • Chickpea is a self-pollinated crop and is normally grown as a rain-fed cool-weather crop or as a dry local weather crop in semi-arid areas.
  • The optimum day-by-day temperature ranges from 18 to 29 C. The plant requires fertile soil with a very good drainage system. Chickpeas typically develop on heavy black or purple soils.
    A soil PH of 6.0 to 7.0. They like soil with good residual soil moisture content material. This crop is grown on reasonably heavy soils, black cotton soils, and sandy loam soils.

Breeding Targets

  • Breeding for greater yield
  • Breeding for prolonged adaptation of chickpea
  • Breeding for resistance to biotic stress
  • Breeding for resistance to abiotic stress
  • Identification of a steady type of male sterility

Excessive Yielding Hybrid Varieties of Chickpea in India:-

There are two essential forms of Chickpeas.

Desi Chickpea Varieties:

Avrodhi, Pant G-186, Gaurav, Uday(KP -75), Gora Hisari, Okay-850, Pant G-114, H-208,

Pusa-256,Pusa-362, Pusa-372, JG-315, Haryana Chana-1, H-355, Radhey,C-235, G-543,

Phule G-5, C-3, B-124BR-78, ST-4, RS-10, RS-11, PUSA-209, BDN-9-3, Annegri-1.

Kabuli Chickpea Varieties: C-104, L-144, L-550, Pusa-1003, Pusa-053, Sadabahar.

Preparation of Area:-

Chickpea is very delicate to soil aeration. This restricts its cultivation on heavy soils and requires particular care in seedbed preparation. A tough seedbed is requiring for chickpea.

If the chickpea crop is taking after a Kharif fellow, it will be fascinating to go for a deep plowing in the course of the monsoon as the identical would assist in bigger conservation of rainwater within the soil profile for subsequent use by this crop. A really wonderful and compact seedbed isn’t good for chickpeas. However, it requires an unfastened and well-aerated seedbed—chickpea cultivation zone.

Crop Rotation in Chickpea Farming:-

To manage the soil-borne illnesses in chickpea cultivation, crop rotation with different cereal crops ought to adopt. Probably the most profitable crop rotations in chickpea farming are giving under.

  • Kharif follow-Chickpea.
  • Maize / Corn – Chickpea.
  • Pearl millet – Chickpea.
  • Rice – Chickpea.
  • Sorghum – Chickpea.

Observe: Chickpea could be grown blended crop with barley, wheat, linseed, rapeseed & mustard crops.

Seed charge & Sowing:-

A seed charge of 60kg/ha and a plant density of 25 to 30 crops per sq. meter is right for chickpea farming. A median seed charge of 70-100kg/ha properly sufficient good progress of the crop. Chickpeas are propagating from seeds.

Sowing is normally completed on conserved soil moisture. Pre-sowing irrigation could also be if the out there soil moisture isn’t enough for germination. Drilling is the most effective sowing technique of chickpeas. Row to Row spacing 25 – 40 cm and plant to plant spacing 10 cm on the depth of two – 12 cm with soil properly pressed down.

A seed is handle with 0.25 p.c Thiram or Carbendazim earlier than sowing Seed measurement (100-seed weight) Small (15 – 20 g) Medium (20 – 30 g) Giant (30 – 40 g) Further-large (40 – 50 g) Seed charge 45 – 60 kg/ha 60 – 90 kg/ha 90 – 120 kg/ha 120 – 150 kg/ha

Chickpea Time of Sowing:-

In India, mid-October to mid-November is the perfect interval for sowing chickpeas. Any deviation from this era causes a conspicuous discount in yield. Nevertheless, in rice-based cropping techniques, chickpea sowing is delaying past the optimum date because of the late harvest of rice.

Late sowing ends in a discount in progress, pre-flowering, and flowering duration and has a substantial miserable impact on plant improvement. Consequently, yields are decreasing. Chickpea cultivation zone in Maharashtra, October sowing gave greater yields than sowing in November or December.

The late-sown crop produced much less biomass, fewer seeds/ plant, and had a low 100-seed mass. In Uttar Pradesh, early-October sowing gave the next yield than sowing in late October, early November, and the third week of November.

Second fortnight of October within the north part of India. For peninsular India, the primary fortnight of October is the most effective time for chickpea sowing. Early sown crop suffers extra from wilt owing to the excessive temperature at the moment.

Nutrient Requirement

Being a legume, the chickpea obtains its nitrogen via nitrogen fixation. It requires optimum quantities of phosphorus, potash, sulfur, and different vitamins. The response to the nutrient utility in chickpea depends on the nutrient standing of the soil, agroclimatic situations, and the genotype.

Each natural and inorganic source of vitamins and Rhizobium inoculation has been discovering to be helpful for chickpea progress and yield. Chickpea being a leguminous crop, fulfills the main part of its nitrogen requirement. The fertilizer dose is 15-20 kg N as the starter dose and 40 kg phosphorous. About 5 tonnes FYM or compost. Fertilizers are drilling in furrows at a depth of 7-10 centimeters.

Nutrient Requirement

A utility of 15-25 kg N ha-1 has been discovering to be optimum for exciting the expansion and yield of chickpea in sandy and loam soils. Nevertheless, when a lively symbiotic nitrogen-fixing system was current, there was no response to nitrogen utility as much as 100 kg N ha-1.

Within the alluvial soils of India, an utility of 30-40 kg N ha-1 was discover to be worthwhile below rainfed cultivation. The software of 20 kg N ha1 elevated chickpea yield in sandy loam soils. An excessive yield with 20 kg N ha-1 and Rhizobium inoculation in Gujarat.

C reported a rise in yield with nitrogen utility as basal dose and on the post-flowering stage. Chickpea cultivation zone, Nitrogen utility in the post-flowering stage, enhanced nitrate reductase exercise and yield. N uptake by chickpea might vary from 60 to 200 kg N ha-

  1. The foliarutility of two% urea elevated yield at some areas.

Phosphorus (P)

The phosphate utility’s response depends on the out there soil P and different edaphic components on Vertisols that are low in P content material. There was no response to broadcast or deep-placed P utility.
On alluvial soils in India with low out there soil P, a 78% improvement was in seed yield with a utility of 32 kg P ha-1 below rainfed situations. The impact of phosphorus utility was extra pronounced when it was along with starter N, Rhizobium.

Rhizobium Inoculation

Chickpea is usually inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spicer. The impact of Rhizobium inoculation on chickpea yield is dependent upon the native rhizobial standing. Fields during which well-nodulated chickpea was grown beforehand don’t require Rhizobium inoculation.

Nevertheless, the place chickpea is being grown after paddy or chickpea is being launched for the primary time, Rhizobium inoculation is critical (ICRISAT 1987).

The trial additionally urged that Glomus fasciculatum and phosphobacteria can tremendously help symbiotic N fixation in addition to phosphate uptake in chickpea, notably when the crop is grown in soil containing soluble phosphates. Seed inoculum: 70 g of peat inoculum and 300 ml of 10% jaggery answer for 20 kg seed DOs in Chickpea manufacturing IMOD I

Weed management

Chickpea being a stature crop, suffers severely from an infestation of weeds. One hand weeding or inter tradition with hand hoe or wheel hoe after 25-30 days and second, if want after 60 days of sowing might deal with weeds. Fluchloralin (Basalin) 1 kg per hectare in 800-1000 liters of water as a pre-planting spray could also use an efficient herbicide. It ought to be properly included within the soil earlier than sowing.

Irrigation

Chickpea is usually sown as a rainfed crop. Nevertheless, the place irrigation amenities can be found, give pre-sowing irrigation. It would guarantee correct germination and easy crop progress. If winter rains fail, give one irrigation on the pre-flowering stage and one on the pod improvement stage.
In no case, first irrigation ought to be giving on the flowering time of the gram crop. Gentle irrigation ought to be given as a result of heavy irrigation is dangerous to gram crops. Extra irrigation enhances vegetative progress and depresses chickpea yield.

Harvesting

Chickpea crop might be preparing for harvesting after leaves flip reddish-brown and begin shedding from the plant. Utilizing sickle or hand, crops ought to be plucking. Ought to permit the crop to dry in solar for a few weeds and threshing need to beat the plant with sticks.

Threshing

Vines together with the pods are harvest from the sector and dried on the ground below sunshine. Threshing is finishing by beating with a stick when sufficiently dry. Care ought to be throughout the threshing so that the seed coats usually are not Break.

Drying

Threshed seeds are clean by winnowing, dried to scale back the seed moisture content material to 12% for momentary storage. Pea seed needs to be sealed containers at 10% moisture content material and in air-cooled rooms for longer storage.

Storing

Desi chickpeas will darken significantly, and seed germination and vigor will decline in storage. . The speed of high-quality decline is accelerating by excessive seed moisture content material, excessive temperatures, excessive relative humidity, and the situation of the seed at harvest. Seed topic to subject weathering before reaping will deteriorate faster in storage, even when saving below acceptable temperature and relative humidity situations.

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About chickpea

chickpea cultivation in India Folklore and archaeology have it that Chickpeas (Cauliferous shrubs from the genus Seoul) were first cultivated in India in Indian brackish lagoons. Modern scholarship on their cultivation highlights that chana (chickpeas) cultivation was an early regional practice of some south Indian farmers.

Practiced the dry technique of cultivation in regions with cool, dry summer winds. Rainwater cultivated in waterlogged habitats was also cultivated into chickpeas. Chickpeas have been grown in small ponds and paddy fields.

Few farmers did have vegetable gardens containing chickpeas, such as Lal Kumhar, Bandhpur, Anantpur, and Purasani of Anantnag, till 1850. A whole range of popular Indian legends on chickpea cultivation abound. Some of these tales involve the deity Gajanan with supernatural powers to ward off evil or disease in the farming villages of northern India.

Some of the folk traditions suggest a king who was to come who would be identified by the one chickpea from which the king’s kingdom was named.

And to commemorate the name of the king, chickpeas were called Kupri in bhakti traditions. The tale of Chickpea Maharaj invites that this king practiced cultivation and that it was his pupil Karpushth who went to a distant village and learned to cultivate chickpeas in the hilly terrain of Karnataka where he succeeded. Such folk traditions, in my opinion, are incomplete and should be supplemented with archaeological evidence.

They do, however, give us an indication about the cultivation practices that the farmers of this region were familiar with. Modern culture Early anthropologists of India claimed that the domestication of pulses had begun in some regions of India around 5000 BCE. Later on, farmers of various north Indian regions introduced the cultivation of chickpeas during ancient Indian history. Thus we find many examples of the cultivation of chickpeas in north India from ancient times.

The cultivation of chickpeas in India became popular in modern times with the cultivation of chickpeas in east India by numerous farmers. The cultivation of chickpeas has also undergone a fascinating and complex transformation over the centuries.

In the north Indian region, chickpeas cultivation flourished initially in south Kashmir, central India, and beyond. There are many examples of the cultivation of chickpeas in Sikkim, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra, and a few in the northern belt.

These regions can be considered as the cultural sphere of cultivation of chickpeas in India. Many of these modern regions also have modern cultural values and practices of producing and distributing agricultural products. These developments in the cultural sphere suggest the connection between farming practices, the exchange of cultural ideas and traditions, and their influence on agricultural practices.

Modern cultures Chickpea cultivation today is evident in different parts of the country. In the central region of north India and a few regions of east India, the agricultural season for chickpeas is during the monsoon season. Fruits like grapes are important for distribution during the course of the growing season.

Chickpea cultivation was first introduced in north India during the monsoon season. In the southern regions, where farming is not a popular activity, most areas do not produce much for the production of chickpeas. Chickpea cultivation is commonly practiced in Andhra, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Gujarat.

In Maharashtra and Gujarat, chickpea cultivation has been extensively promoted by the government. During the monsoon season, the short-cropped chickpea is cultivated in small ponds and paddy fields.

The crop requires irrigation in the early months. In all of the above-mentioned regions, the crops are cultivated without the use of diesel machines. The cultivation of chickpeas in north India did not suffer any shortage of fodder due to the availability of sago, the seeds of which are commonly cultivated in rice fields.

Thus, it seems that the cultivation of chickpeas is a suitable cultivation practice for farmers who also cultivate rice. Also, unlike rice cultivation, a hermetic plant culture requiring constant watering, the cultivation of chickpeas is a casual, damp crop that needs to be cultivated only during the monsoon season.

The cultivation of chickpeas appears to have reached its height in Indore, Madhya Pradesh, where the urban farmers took up the cultivation of chickpeas during the monsoon season. Many farmers in urban areas are now converting their cultivation of chickpeas from seasonal to permanent.

Chickpeas are cultivated widely on the slopes of south India, which is a hilly region that allows different kinds of farming. Agricultural practices Chickpeas cultivation in India is based on modern cultivation practices. The most important method for chickpea cultivation is the cultivation of chickpea flour and vegetable oil.

The cultivation of chickpeas in India is a common practice. Modern agricultural practices give a facelift to the agricultural practices of early times. These modern practices include increasing the yields of chickpea and bringing the crop to other parts of the country. They also encourage the cultivation of short-cropped chickpeas in open and wetlands and cultivate high-yielding varieties of chickpeas. The cultivation of chickpeas in drylands is important for the production of short and long-stem chickpeas. The short-stemmed chickpeas are high-yielding and have low levels of protein.

The long stem chickpea has a comparatively higher protein content. The cultivation of dry land chickpeas needs suitable climate conditions. Must treat the soil with organic fertilizers and herbicides to retain the moisture of the soil. Cultivation of short and long stem chickpeas is easy, but the production of short stem chickpeas in urban areas is an indigent agricultural practice. This practice is common among rural farmers only and is not encouraged by the government. Modern agricultural practices ensure that short and long stems chickpeas are made more profitable for the farmers.

This makes it possible for the farmers to cultivate this variety of chickpeas in urban areas. Farming practices in urban areas During the monsoon season, chickpea cultivation in different kinds of land surfaces is practiced. In many urban areas, agriculture in the first stage of farming is done on dry land. This is because of the moisture content of the soil in the monsoon season. The cultivation of short and long stem chickpeas on the dry land is carried out on the surface of drylands using sprinklers and tiller tools. Also, the farmers cultivate carrot, beet, and gram on the drylands during the monsoon season.

During the monsoon season, vegetable gardens and flower pots are cultivated. The cultivation of chickpeas is not restricted to the gardens. The cultivation of chickpeas in the backyard is common. In many parts of India, it is the habit of the farmers to cultivate chickpeas in the backyard during the monsoon season. The backyard crops are cultivated mainly with the use of an efficient irrigation system. Chickpea cultivation in hilly regions The cultivation of chickpeas in the hilly regions is one of the easiest methods to encourage the production of chickpeas in India.

In hilly regions, the cultivation of chickpeas is done in the form of spring crops, vegetables, and melon cultivation. During the monsoon season, chickpeas are cultivated on the dry land in hilly regions. The cultivation of chickpeas in hilly regions is made easy for the farmers by cultivating chickpea flour and chickpea cultivation in India Folklore and archaeology have it that Chickpeas (Cauliferous shrubs from the genus Seoul) were first cultivated in India in Indian brackish lagoons. Modern scholarship on their cultivation highlights that chana (chickpeas) cultivation was an early regional practice of some south Indian farmers.

C practiced the dry technique of cultivation in regions with cool, dry summer winds. Rainwater cultivated in waterlogged habitats was also cultivated into chickpeas. Chickpeas have been grown in small ponds and paddy fields. Few farmers did have vegetable gardens containing chickpeas, such as Lal Kumhar, Bandhpur, Anantpur, and Purasani of Anantnag, till 1850. A whole range of popular Indian legends on chickpea cultivation abound. Some of these tales involve the deity Gajanan with supernatural powers to ward off evil or disease in the farming villages of northern India.

Some of the folk traditions suggest a king who was to come who would be identified by the one chickpea from which the king’s kingdom was named. And to commemorate the name of the king, chickpeas were called Kupri in bhakti traditions.

The tale of Chickpea Maharaj invites that this king practiced cultivation and that it was his pupil Karpushth who went to a distant village and learned to cultivate chickpeas in the hilly terrain of Karnataka where he succeeded. Such folk traditions, in my opinion, are incomplete and should be supplemented with archaeological evidence.

They do, however, give us an indication about the cultivation practices that the farmers of this region were familiar with. Modern culture Early anthropologists of India claimed that the domestication of pulses had begun in some regions of India around 5000 BCE. Later on, farmers of various north Indian regions introduced the cultivation of chickpeas during ancient Indian history. Thus we find many examples of the cultivation of chickpeas in north India from ancient times. The cultivation of chickpeas in India became popular in modern times with the cultivation of chickpeas in east India by numerous farmers.

The cultivation of chickpeas has also undergone a fascinating and complex transformation over the centuries. In the north Indian region, chickpeas cultivation flourished initially in south Kashmir, central India, and beyond. There are many examples of the cultivation of chickpeas in Sikkim, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra, and a few in the northern belt. These regions can be considered as the cultural sphere of cultivation of chickpeas in India.

Many of these modern regions also have modern cultural values and practices of producing and distributing agricultural products. These developments in the cultural sphere suggest the connection between farming practices, the exchange of cultural ideas and traditions, and their influence on agricultural practices. Modern cultures Chickpea cultivation today is evident in different parts of the country. In the central region of north India and a few regions of east India, the agricultural season for chickpeas is during the monsoon season.

Fruits like grapes are important for distribution during the course of the growing season. Chickpea cultivation was first introduced in north India during the monsoon season. In the southern regions, where farming is not a popular activity, most areas do not produce much for the production of chickpeas.

Chickpea cultivation is commonly practiced in Andhra, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Gujarat. In Maharashtra and Gujarat, chickpea cultivation has been extensively promoted by the government.

During the monsoon season, the short-cropped chickpea is cultivated in small ponds and paddy fields. The crop requires irrigation in the early months. In all of the above-mentioned regions, the crops are cultivated without the use of diesel machines. The cultivation of chickpeas in north India did not suffer any shortage of fodder due to the availability of sago, the seeds of which are commonly cultivated in rice fields.

Thus, it seems that the cultivation of chickpeas is a suitable cultivation practice for farmers who also cultivate rice. Also, unlike rice cultivation, a hermetic plant culture requiring constant watering, the cultivation of chickpeas is a casual, damp crop that needs to be cultivated only during the monsoon season.

The cultivation of chickpeas appears to have reached its height in Indore, Madhya Pradesh, where the urban farmers took up the cultivation of chickpeas during the monsoon season. Many farmers in urban areas are now converting their cultivation of chickpeas from seasonal to permanent. Chickpeas are cultivated widely on the slopes of south India, which is a hilly region that allows different kinds of farming.

Agricultural practices Chickpeas cultivation in India is based on modern cultivation practices. The most important method for chickpea cultivation is the cultivation of chickpea flour and vegetable oil. The cultivation of chickpeas in India is a common practice.

Modern agricultural practices give a facelift to the agricultural practices of early times. These modern practices include increasing the yields of chickpea and bringing the crop to other parts of the country. They also encourage the cultivation of short-cropped chickpeas in open and wetlands and cultivate high-yielding varieties of chickpeas.

The cultivation of chickpeas in drylands is important for the production of short and long-stem chickpeas. The short-stemmed chickpeas are high-yielding and have low levels of protein. The long stem chickpea has a comparatively higher protein content.

The cultivation of dry land chickpeas needs suitable climate conditions. C must treat the soil with organic fertilizers and herbicides to retain the moisture of the soil. Cultivation of short and long stem chickpeas is easy, but the production of short stem chickpeas in urban areas is an indigent agricultural practice.

This practice is common among rural farmers only and is not encouraged by the government. Modern agricultural practices ensure that short and long stems chickpeas are made more profitable for the farmers.

This makes it possible for the farmers to cultivate this variety of chickpeas in urban areas. Farming practices in urban areas During the monsoon season, chickpea cultivation in different kinds of land surfaces is practiced. In many urban areas, agriculture in the first stage of farming is done on dry land. This is because of the moisture content of the soil in the monsoon season.

The cultivation of short and long stem chickpeas on the dry land is carried out on the surface of drylands using sprinklers and tiller tools.

Also, the farmers cultivate carrot, beet, and gram on the drylands during the monsoon season. During the monsoon season, vegetable gardens and flower pots are cultivated. The cultivation of chickpeas is not restricted to the gardens. The cultivation of chickpeas in the backyard is common.

In many parts of India, it is the habit of the farmers to cultivate chickpeas in the backyard during the monsoon season. The backyard crops are cultivated mainly with the use of an efficient irrigation system.

Chickpea cultivation in hilly regions The cultivation of chickpeas in the hilly regions is one of the easiest methods to encourage the production of chickpeas in India. In hilly regions, the cultivation of chickpeas is done in the form of spring crops, vegetables, and melon cultivation.

During the monsoon season, chickpeas are cultivated on the dry land in hilly regions. The cultivation of chickpeas in hilly regions is made easy for the farmers by cultivating chickpea flour and vegetable oil.

The cultivation of spring vegetables is also done in the hilly regions. Spring vegetable cultivation is important for the growth of chickpeas in hilly regions. The cultivation of chickpeas on the drylands is also made easy for the farmers by cultivating chickpea flour and vegetable oil. It is possible for the farmers to cultivate chickpea in the drylands during the rainy seasons but in small quantities. The cultivation of spring vegetables is important for the cultivation of short stem chickpeas on drylands.

The cultivation of spring vegetables is not common in India, and many farmers do not cultivate it. The reasons for this are the lack of awareness and agriculture practices among the farmers of hilly regions. Different varieties of chickpeas grown in India include Agrimaya, Alpana, Golul, Muksan, Karubbi, and Sonpala. These varieties of chickpeas are best suited for the cultivation of short and long-stem chickpeas.

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